Remotely sensed surface indicators of groundwater provide useful data where practical classical alternatives are not available
Groundwater exploration requires the idea of lithological units, structural disposition, geomorphic set-up, surface water condition, vegetation, etc. These can be acquired by using remote sensing (RS). Integrated remote sensing and GIS are widely used in groundwater mapping since it provide more convenient and cost effective approach compared to invasive methods with the advent of a number of satellite imagery.
Remote sensing is the use of reflected and emitted energy to measure the physical properties of distant objects and their surroundings. The relative and absolute measurements can be analyzed and interpreted to yield meaningful conclusions of potential groundwater condition in such area. The remote sensing data are very accurate, fast and reliable as compared to the conventional data collection. GIS is a tool for storing, manipulating, retrieving and presenting both spatial and non-spatial data in a quick, efficient and organised way. Combination of these tools provides us with comprehensives approach on exploring groundwater for better understanding of the characterization of groundwater.
At SUPRA, we focus on providing remote sensing data for groundwater mapping that consist of
- Aquifer characterization: surface biophysical parameters mapping, soil hydraulic parameter and soil moisture mapping, and aquifer specific yield mapping;
- Groundwater dynamics: groundwater recharge mapping and assessment, water budget and seasonal change quantification, and ecosystem and climate change impacts and feedbacks;
- Modelling and calibration/validation for assessing the aquifer water dynamics using remote sensing data.
Remote sensing with its advantages of spatial, spectral and temporal availability of data covering large and inaccessible areas within short time has become a very handy tool in assessing, monitoring and conserving groundwater resources. Satellite data provides quick and useful baseline information on the parameters controlling the occurrence and movement of groundwater like geology, lithology/structural, geomorphology, soils, landuse/cover, lineaments etc. The aim of remote sensing-based groundwater exploration is to delineate all possible features connected with localization of groundwater. Data, driven out of remote sensing, support decisions related to sustainable development and groundwater management.